中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(11) 2702-2707

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天麻商品规格变迁及其经验鉴别术语形成
Evolution of commercial specification and experimental identification terms of Gastrodiae Rhizoma

韩晓静;程铭恩;袁媛;桂双英;彭华胜;
HAN Xiao-jing;CHENG Ming-en;YUAN Yuan;GUI Shuang-ying;PENG Hua-sheng;School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine;Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit(No.2019RU057), National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;

摘要(Abstract):

天麻作为名贵中药材,其质量评价和经验鉴别倍受历代中医药学家所关注,逐渐形成了丰富的商品规格及经验鉴别术语。该文通过对历代本草文献的梳理,探讨了天麻商品规格变迁及其经验鉴别术语的形成。发现清代以前天麻商品主要来自红天麻。清代以来,云贵地区乌天麻商品逐渐兴起,贵州天麻和云南昭通天麻开始成为主流商品之一。至此,乌天麻与红天麻成为天麻商品的2个主流商品。20世纪70年代天麻栽培成功推广以前,天麻商品来自野生资源,商品规格常根据采收时间相应分为春麻和冬麻。随着天麻栽培技术的成功推广以及野生天麻资源濒危,冬天麻已经成为市场商品主流。天麻的伪品在20世纪60—70年代显著增加,这段时期天麻的经验鉴别术语显著增多,经验鉴别具有鲜明的时代性。挖掘民间药材鉴别经验,可以推动中药材经验鉴别与时俱进发展。
Gastrodia Rhizoma, as a precious Chinese materia medica, has attracted the attention of Chinese materia medica experts in the past dynasties for the commercial specification and experimental identification, and has gradually formed a wealth of terms concerning commercial specification and experimental identification. Through combing the literatures of successive dynasties, this paper discussed the change of the commercial specification of the Gastrodiae Rhizoma and formation of its identifying terms. It has found that the Gastrodiae Rhizoma mainly came from the dried rhizomes of the Gastrodia elata f.elata before the Qing Dynasty. Since the Qing Dynasty, G. elata in Yunnan and Guizhou gradually arose and become one of sources of mainstream commodities. After that, G. elata f. glauca and G. elata f. elata were becoming the main sources of Gastrodiae Rhizoma. Before the large-scale cultivation of G. elata in the 1970 s, there is only wild G. elata over the country. In terms of commercial specification, they were often classified into Chunma and Dongma according to their harvest time. With the successful promotion of cultivation technology and the endangered wild resources of G. elata, the Dongma became the mainstream in the market. The adulterants of G. elata increased significantly in the 1960 s and 1970 s, in this period, the terms of experimental identification for G. elata also increased obviously. Experimental identification is distinctive in different times, therefore, studying experimental identification of medicinal materials helps to promote the development of the Chinese materia medica.

关键词(KeyWords): 天麻;商品规格;经验鉴别;本草考证
Gastrodiae Rhizoma;commercial specification;experimental identification;herbal textual research

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金重大项目(81891013,81891010);; 安徽省中央引导地方科技发展专项资金项目(YDZX20183400004233);; 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302)

作者(Author): 韩晓静;程铭恩;袁媛;桂双英;彭华胜;
HAN Xiao-jing;CHENG Ming-en;YUAN Yuan;GUI Shuang-ying;PENG Hua-sheng;School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine;Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit(No.2019RU057), National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200329.102

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