中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(03) 457-462

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天麻-冬荪轮种模式的生态效益研究
Ecological benefits of Gastrodia elata-Phallus impudicus sequential planting pattern

张进强;周涛;郭兰萍;江维克;王晓;张光文;潘成;刘鹏;曹永直;肖承鸿;
ZHANG Jin-qiang;ZHOU Tao;GUO Lan-ping;JIANG Wei-ke;WANG Xiao;ZHANG Guang-wen;PAN Cheng;LIU Peng;CAO Yong-zhi;XIAO Cheng-hong;Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;National Resource Center for Chinese Meteria Medica,Chinese Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Shandong Analysis and Test Center;Guizhou Wumeng Teng Fungus Industry Limited Company;Dejiang Lvtong Gastrodia elata Development Limited Company;Dejiang Agricultural Technology Station of Agricultural and Rural Bureau;

摘要(Abstract):

天麻是一种特殊的异养型药用植物,在栽培天麻的过程中,受连作障碍等因素的影响,种过天麻的菌材及土地常被废弃,造成了资源的极大浪费。该文结合天麻、冬荪的种植特点和前人在生态农业相关研究的经验,分析了天麻、冬荪的生态适应性特征,归纳了天麻-冬荪轮种的技术要点;持续对天麻-冬荪轮种模式的推广面积、菌材消耗量、市场销售情况等问题进行跟踪调查,从菌材利用率、单位面积土地资源的附加值、生态环境保护、劳动成本及经济效益等方面对天麻-冬荪轮种模式的生态效益进行分析,并根据天麻和冬荪的生态习性、收种时令、消耗菌材成分的差异性、微生物生态等方面阐明天麻-冬荪轮种的技术原理。天麻-冬荪的轮种既实现了药材和食用菌的双产,减少旧菌材的资源浪费,也使能量从营养供给型真菌向食药用型真菌的转换,保障了天麻种植过程中的生态循环利用。
Gastrodia elata is a kind of precious traditional Chinese medicine. In the process of cultivation of G. elata, due to the influence of continuous cropping obstacles and other factors, the fungus materials and land that have been planted with G. elata are often abandoned, resulting in a great waste of resources. Based on the planting characteristics of G. elata and Phallus impudicus and the previous research experience in ecological agriculture, this paper analyzed the ecological adaptability characteristics of G. elata and P. impudicus, and summarized the key techniques of the G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern. Keeping track of the planting area, fungus-growing materials consumption and market sales of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern, the ecological benefits of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern from the aspects of utilization rate of fungus-growing materials were analyzed, the value of land resources per unit area, ecological environmental protection, labor cost and economic benefits were consi-dered. The technical principle of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern was expounded according to their ecological habit, the season of harvest and planting, the difference of composition of fungus-growing materials, and the microbial ecology. The sequential planting pattern of G. elata-P. impudicus not only realized the double production of medicinal materials and edible fungi, reduced the waste of old fungus-growing materials, but also transformed the energy from nutrition-supplied fungi to edible and medicinal fungi, which guaranteed the ecological recycling and utilization of G. elata in the process of cultivation.

关键词(KeyWords): 天麻;冬荪;菌材;生态循环利用
Gastrodia elata;Phallus impudicus;fungus-growing materials;ecological recycling

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划中医药现代化研究专项(2017YFC1700703);; 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 贵州省高层次新型人才(黔科合平台人才[2018]5638);; 贵州省科技创新人才团队项目(黔科合平台人才[2019]5611);; 贵州省中药学国家一流学科建设(GNYL[2017]008);; 现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-21);; 贵州省教育厅创新群体重大研究项目(黔教合KY字[2018]022);; 贵州省科技厅成果转化项目(黔科合成果[2017]4106)

作者(Author): 张进强;周涛;郭兰萍;江维克;王晓;张光文;潘成;刘鹏;曹永直;肖承鸿;
ZHANG Jin-qiang;ZHOU Tao;GUO Lan-ping;JIANG Wei-ke;WANG Xiao;ZHANG Guang-wen;PAN Cheng;LIU Peng;CAO Yong-zhi;XIAO Cheng-hong;Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;National Resource Center for Chinese Meteria Medica,Chinese Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Shandong Analysis and Test Center;Guizhou Wumeng Teng Fungus Industry Limited Company;Dejiang Lvtong Gastrodia elata Development Limited Company;Dejiang Agricultural Technology Station of Agricultural and Rural Bureau;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20191204.105

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