中国中药杂志

2019, v.44(23) 5248-5255

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经典名方中术类药材的本草考证
Textual research on "Zhu" in Chinese classical prescriptions

赵佳琛;翁倩倩;张悦;张卫;彭华胜;杨洪军;詹志来;
ZHAO Jia-chen;WENG Qian-qian;ZHANG Yue;ZHANG Wei;PENG Hua-sheng;YANG Hong-jun;ZHAN Zhi-lai;State Key Laboratory of Dao-di Herbs breeding base,National Resource Center for Chinese MateriaMedica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Academician Workstation of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Office of A

摘要(Abstract):

该文通过查阅历代本草及医书典籍,结合现代文献资料、实地调查进行本草考证研究,对经典名方中术类药材的名称、基原、产地、采收加工变迁进行了考证。术在南北朝之前未做区分,功效与今之苍术相近;南北朝时陶弘景提出"赤、白之说",苍术、白术逐渐出现分化,但未区分明确;宋元以来推崇白术,文献记载中将苍术、白术分列;明代始出现白术的栽培,并根据生长模式及产地分化出不同品质规格;苍术以茅山为道地,白术以于潜野生者为最优;近现代根据植物分类学对苍术和白术的基原进行了界定。考证认为宋之前的"术"与今苍术Atractylodes lancea接近,自宋代以来推崇白术,故宋人重校前代文献时将"术"统一改为白术,并沿用至今,历史悠久,其安全性与有效性已得到证实,故建议经典名方开发时,对记载为"白术"的处方,其药材基原可采用白术A. macrocephala,亦可根据方义主治选取合适的基原。经典名方所载"苍术"的基原应为今之苍术A. lancea。
Through consulting the ancient herbs and medical books,combining with modern literature and field investigation,this paper makes textual research on herbal medicine,and makes textual research on the name,origin,position and changes of collection and processing of the medicinal herbs in Ancient Classical Prescriptions. " Zhu" wasn't distinguished before the Northern and Southern Dynasties,but the efficacy of the techniques recorded in the documents at that time was similar to that of today's Atractylodis Rhizoma.Tao Hongjing put forward the theory of " red and white" in the Northern and Southern Dynasties. " Cangzhu" and " Baizhu" gradually differentiated,but there was no clear distinction between them. Since Song and Yuan Dynasties, " Baizhu" has been respected and classified in the literature. In Ming Dynasty, " Baizhu" was cultivated and differentiated into different quality specifications according to its growth pattern and origin. Maoshan is the genuine production area of " Cangzhu". The quality of wild " Baizhu" produced in Yuqian city is the best. In modern times,the origins of " Cangzhu" and " Baizhu" were defined according to plant taxonomy. " Zhu" before Song Dynasty was close to Atractylodes lancea, " Baishu" had been respected since the Song Dynasty. So when Song people revised the previous literature,they unified " Zhu" into " Baizhu" and used it for later generations. Its safety and effectiveness have been confirmed,and the wild resources of modern atractylodes are scarce. Therefore,it is suggested that when classical famous prescriptions are developed,the prescription recorded as " Baizhu" does not need to be changed in its origin,that is,A. macrocephala at present or can choose the appropriate basis according to the principle of local righteousness.Textual research shows that the origin of " Cangzhu" in the classical prescription should be A. lancea.

关键词(KeyWords): 经典名方;术;本草考证
Chinese classical prescriptions;" Zhu";textual research on materiamedica

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1700805);; 国家发改委标准化项目(ZYBZH-C-QIN-46)

作者(Author): 赵佳琛;翁倩倩;张悦;张卫;彭华胜;杨洪军;詹志来;
ZHAO Jia-chen;WENG Qian-qian;ZHANG Yue;ZHANG Wei;PENG Hua-sheng;YANG Hong-jun;ZHAN Zhi-lai;State Key Laboratory of Dao-di Herbs breeding base,National Resource Center for Chinese MateriaMedica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Academician Workstation of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Office of A

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