中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(09) 2036-2041

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天麻种植生产的生态循环利用模式分析
Analysis of ecological recycling modes for Gastrodia elata cultivation

张进强;周涛;江维克;郭兰萍;张光文;文玉朝;刘鹏;王晓;潘成;肖承鸿;
ZHANG Jin-qiang;ZHOU Tao;JIANG Wei-ke;GUO Lan-ping;ZHANG Guang-wen;WEN Yu-chao;LIU Peng;WANG Xiao;PAN Cheng;XIAO Cheng-hong;Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;National Resource Center for Chinese Meteria Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Guizhou Wumengteng Fungus Industry Limited Company;Dejiang Lvtong Gastrodia elata Development Limited Company;Shandong Analysis and Test Center;

摘要(Abstract):

天麻作为一种传统名贵中药,在人工栽培中尚未摆脱对森林资源的依赖。为了维持生态系统的平衡,尽可能减少资源浪费,该文通过实地调研,梳理了"林-麻"配套种植、"麻-菌"轮作、"林-麻-菌"立体种植、"因材施种"的菌材分类种植等循环利用模式,阐明了这些模式在天麻生产种所解决的生态问题,并分析其不足;最后,在现存模式的基础上,总结了一套完整的天麻生态种植体系,该种植体系强调:①在种植天麻前规划后续林,采用速生林与经济林相结合的方法,以速生林作为菌材的主要来源,并在经济林下种植天麻;②将菌材分级分类利用,叶片用于培养天麻萌发菌,小树枝用于培养原球茎及米麻,大树枝用于培养种麻,树干用于栽培商品麻;③循环利用天麻旧菌材,将旧菌材用于生产菌种或栽培栽培冬荪、竹荪、猪苓等食药用菌。该方案解决了菌材的来源、菌材及土地资源的高效利用等问题,丰富了产业结构,用有限的时间及土地资源获取更大的经济收益,无论是对于扶贫攻坚还是改善生态都有一定的指导意义。
Gastrodia elata is a kind of precious traditional Chinese medicine. In artificial cultivation, it has not got rid of its dependence on forest resources. In order to maintain the balance of the ecological system and reduce the waste of resources as much as possible, based on the information from field investigation at many places, this paper introduced the new ecological circulation planting patterns of G. elata, such as "forest-G. elata" supporting planting, G. elata-edible mushroom rotation, forest-G. elata-edible mushroom three-dimensional planting, fungus material classification planting technology, and so on. In this paper, we expounded the ecological problems solved by several planting patterns in G. elata production and analyzed their shortcomings. Finally, based on the exis-ting models, a complete ecological planting system of G. elata was summarized. This planting system emphasizes: ① The follow-up forests should be started before the planting of G. elata. And the economic forests were used to cultivation of G. elata. ② The classified utilization of fungus-growing materials. The leaves were used to cultivate germination bacteria of G. elata, the small branches were used to cultivate protocorm and juvenile tuber, the large branches were used to cultivate immature tuber, and the tree trunk was used to cultivate mature tuber. ③ Recycle utilization G. elata fungus material. The old fungus materials were used to produce strains or cultivate edible fungus. This design project not only solves the problems of the source of G. elata fungus material, the efficient utilization of fungus material and land resources, but also enriches the industrial structure. Using limited time and land resources to obtain greater economic benefits. It has certain guiding significance for poverty alleviation and ecological improvement.

关键词(KeyWords): 天麻;菌材;生态循环利用;可持续发展
Gastrodia elata;fungus-growing materials;ecological recycling;sustainable development

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划中医药现代化研究专项(2017YFC1700703);; 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 贵州省高层次新型人才(黔科合平台人才[2018]5638);; 贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合平台人才[2019]5611);; 贵州省中药学国家一流学科建设(GNYL[2017]008);; 现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-21);; 贵州省教育厅创新群体重大研究项目(黔教合KY字[2018]022)

作者(Author): 张进强;周涛;江维克;郭兰萍;张光文;文玉朝;刘鹏;王晓;潘成;肖承鸿;
ZHANG Jin-qiang;ZHOU Tao;JIANG Wei-ke;GUO Lan-ping;ZHANG Guang-wen;WEN Yu-chao;LIU Peng;WANG Xiao;PAN Cheng;XIAO Cheng-hong;Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;National Resource Center for Chinese Meteria Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Guizhou Wumengteng Fungus Industry Limited Company;Dejiang Lvtong Gastrodia elata Development Limited Company;Shandong Analysis and Test Center;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200302.109

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