中国中药杂志

2018, v.43(03) 631-636

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黄精本草考证与启迪
Herbal textual research on Chinese medicine "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizoma) and some enlightenments

刘京晶;斯金平;
LIU Jing-jing;SI Jin-ping;State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture,Zhejiang A & F University;

摘要(Abstract):

为了明晰"黄精"基原植物沿革与变迁、药用部位与传统功效、资源与分布,该文对"女萎""葳蕤""黄精"进行了系统的本草考证。始载于《神农本草经》的"女萎",包含了《名医别录》记载的"葳蕤"与"黄精"两者的功效,其中"葳蕤"传承了"女萎"的主治功效,"黄精"传承了"女萎""主补中益气,除风湿,安五脏。久服轻身、延年、不饥"等主补功效,其后本草均沿用《名医别录》记载。"黄精"基原植物的沿革与变迁进一步表明,明清以前本草中"玉竹"(女萎、葳蕤)中包含"黄精",其中唐初以前主要根据根状茎结节状形态与个体大小区分"黄精"、"玉竹",形态的鉴别具有科学性一直沿用至今,大小鉴别显然不科学;唐代至清初强调叶对生者为正精,将年幼的黄精与滇黄精、叶互生的多花黄精等误认为"玉竹",追根溯源"黄精"应始载于《神农本草经》,又名"女萎"……,"黄精"的古方开发应一并注重"玉竹"方。历代本草记载"黄精"药用部位除根茎外,叶、花、果实和幼苗均可作食药用,但近代未见开发利用;"黄精"的栽培历史悠久,唐诗就有记载,《本草纲目》详细描述了种植方法;"黄精"的采收加工从"二月采根,阴干"(《名医别录》)发展至"九蒸九曝"(《食疗本草》)、"今通八月采"(《本草图经》),但"黄精"栽培品种、资源培育与精准采收等关键技术直至现代仍无重大突破。《本草图经》首次记载"黄精"道地产区"以嵩山、茅山者为佳",但江苏茅山、河南嵩山并非现代的"黄精"主产区,"黄精"产区规划有待于进一步研究。
To clarify the change and development of the original plants,medicinal organs,traditional functions,resource distribution of " Huangjing"( Polygonati Rhizome),a traditional Chinese medicine,we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of " Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to " Weirui"( Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, " Yuzhu"),that was tonifying,nourishing one's vitality,removing wind and dampness,settling five organs,making body lightness,keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to " Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu( Appendant Records of Famous Physicians). Specifically, " Weirui" possesses the therapeutic effect of " Nüwei",while " Huangjing" possesses the tonic effect of " Nüwei". Thereafter,the following ancient Chinese herbal texts kept those two names and function records. Accordingly,we hold the point of view that " Huangjing" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic in the synonym of " Nüwei". " Yuzhu" included the " Huangjing" in ancient herbal text before Qing Dynasty,that was further confirmed by the research on change and development of the original plants. The identification between " Yuzhu" and " Huangjing" was based on the shape of rhizome and size before early Tang Dynasty. The shape was a key character and used up to now,but size was not reasonable. The opposite phyllotaxy was an important character of authentic " Huangjing" from Tang to Qing Dynasty. The seedling of Polygonatum sibiricum and P. kingianum,the adult plant of P. cyrtonema with alternate leaves were misused as " Yuzhu"( " Nüwei" and " Weirui") at that time. Therefore,both " Yuzhu" and " Huangjing" should be used as key words during the search of ancient prescriptions and development of new drugs and health foods. The leaves,flowers,fruits and seedlings could be used as food or medicine other than the rhizomes in ancient China,but they haven' t been developed in modern times.The culture of " Huangjing" had a long history starting with Tang Dynasty,which was recorded in Tang poetry. Then in Ming Dynasty,the culture method was described in Compendium of Materia Medica,that was cutting the rhizomes into 2 feet,planting sparsely( they would be grown densely in the next year),or sowing the seeds. The harvesting and processing were first recorded in Ming Yi Bie Lu: " harvest the roots in February,dry in the shade". Then the processing method was changed to " steaming and drying in the sun,repeatedly for nine times" in Shi Liao Ben Cao( Dietetic Materia Medica) and " harvesting in August as well" in Ben Cao Tu Jing( Commentaries on the Illustrations). No breakthrough has been taken in the breeding of cultivars and key cultivation technologies yet. As to the geo-authentic habitats,Mount Songshan and Maoshan were firstly recorded as the best producing areas of " Huangjing" in Ben Cao Tu Jing. But Maoshan,Jiangsu province and Mount Songshan,Henan province,are not main producing areas in modern China. Consequently,the plantation plan of Polygonati Rhizome needs further study.

关键词(KeyWords): 黄精;基原植物;药用部位;采收加工;考证
Polygonati Rhizome;original species;medicinal parts;harvesting and processing;herbal textual research

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 浙江省重大科技专项(2016C02058)

作者(Author): 刘京晶;斯金平;
LIU Jing-jing;SI Jin-ping;State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture,Zhejiang A & F University;

Email:

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20180105.001

参考文献(References):

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