中国中药杂志

2019, v.44(23) 5042-5050

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药食两用植物药中重金属污染及其健康风险评估模型的建立——以黄芪、党参、昆布为例
Establishment of health risk assessment model for assessing medicinal and edible plants contaminated by heavy metals——take Astragali Radix,Codonopsis Radix and Laminariae Thallus as examples

孔丹丹;李歆悦;闫卉欣;骆骄阳;杨美华;
KONG Dan-dan;LI Xin-yue;YAN Hui-xin;LUO Jiao-yang;YANG Mei-hua;Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine,Ministry of Education,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College;

摘要(Abstract):

随着生活水平的日益提高,由"药食同源"理论发展而来的食疗、药膳、养生学等已成为人们关注的热点。近年来,关于传统中药及药食两用中药的药效成分、药理作用已有大量文献报道,但对于其安全性方面的报道相对较少。因此,为进一步评估传统中药及药食同源中药的质量安全性,该实验以传统药食两用黄芪、党参和昆布3味植物药为研究对象,深入了解重金属在其不同类型中药材中的污染水平及残留情况,并对服用该类药材潜在的健康风险进行评估。该研究采用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)法测定上述3味药材中铬(Cr)、铜(Cu)、砷(As)、镉(Cd)、汞(Hg)和铅(Pb)的含量,并结合靶标危害系数法(target hazard quotients,THQ)与致癌风险值(CR,carcinogenic risk)评估了其非致癌与致癌风险等级。结果表明:在国际标准化组织与国内重金属限量标准下(ISO 18664-2015,GB 2762-2017),随机抽选的16批黄芪、26批党参和9批昆布重金属超标率分别为25%,77%,100%。若以原药材中重金属含量结合THQ与CR健康风险数值为评估标准时,黄芪和党参中成人和儿童的THQ总值分别为0. 028 244,0. 063 505和0. 014 485,0. 032 568,均高于标准值0. 02和0. 011 25;昆布药用时成人和儿童THQ总值为0. 023 734和0. 020 287,远高于标准值0. 008 0和0. 007 5,然而3味药材中As,Cd,Pb的CR均低于1×10~(-6),表明以上6种有害元素对暴露人群存在一定的健康危害,但不存在潜在的致癌影响。可见,传统中药材及药食两用药材中的重金属及有害元素污染问题仍然存在,需得到重视并及时建立合理的重金属及有害元素的限量标准及质量控制方法。
With the improvement of living standard,the theory of " medicine and food homology" has developed rapidly in the field of diet,medicine and health preservation. In recent years,many literatures have been reported on the active ingredients and pharmacological effects of medicinal and edible plants,but relatively few reports have been reported on their safety investigation. Therefore,to further evaluate the quality and safety of medicinal and edible plants,Astragali Radix,Codonopsis Radix and Laminariae Thallus were selected as our research objects in this study. Moreover,the pollution level and the potential health risk of heavy metals were deeply assessed in different types of medicinal and edible plants. Especially,the contents of chromium,copper,arsenic,cadmium,mercury and lead in these three herbs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS),and their health risk level was evaluated by target hazard coefficient method. The results showed that under the international heavy metal limit standard( ISO 18664-2015,GB 2762-2017),the over-standard rates were 25%,77% and 100% in 16 batches of Astragali Radix,26 batches of Codonopsis Radix and 9 batches of Laminariae Thallus,respectively. Besides,the values of target hazard quotients( THQ) for adults and children are 0. 028 244,0. 063 505 and 0. 014 485,0. 032 568 in Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosula,respectively,which were higher than the standard values of 0. 02 and 0. 011 25. While,the total heavy metals THQ values for adults and children are 0. 023 734 and 0. 020 287 in Laminariae Thallus,which were much higher than the standard values of 0. 008 0 and 0. 007 5. However,the CR values of As,Cd and Pb in the three herbs were lower than 1×10~(-6). Above results indicated that those six harmful elements have certain health hazards to the exposed population,but there is no potential carcinogenic effect. It can be seen that,there were still presence of the pollution of harmful elements,and it is necessary to establish the reasonable limit standards and quality control methods of medicinal and edible plants in time.

关键词(KeyWords): 药食两用植物药;重金属及有害元素;ICP-MS;健康风险评估
medicinal and edible plants;heavy metals and toxic elements;ICP-MS;health risk assessment

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 中国医学科学院协同创新项目(2017-I2M-1-013,2016-I2M-3-010);; 国家自然科学基金项目(81903797);; 协和青年基金资助和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(3332018201);; 国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFF0214202)

作者(Author): 孔丹丹;李歆悦;闫卉欣;骆骄阳;杨美华;
KONG Dan-dan;LI Xin-yue;YAN Hui-xin;LUO Jiao-yang;YANG Mei-hua;Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine,Ministry of Education,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College;

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