中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(03) 478-484

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乌天麻的病害调查及其鉴定分析
Investigation, analysis and identification of disease of Gastrodia elata f. glauca

张进强;唐鑫;肖承鸿;徐娇;袁青松;王晓;刘大会;张光文;刘福明;江维克;周涛;
ZHANG Jin-qiang;TANG Xin;XIAO Cheng-hong;XU Jiao;YUAN Qing-song;WANG Xiao;LIU Da-hui;ZHANG Guang-wen;LIU Fu-ming;JIANG Wei-ke;ZHOU Tao;Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Shandong Analysis and Test Center;Hubei University of Chinese Medicine;Guizhou Wumeng Teng Fungus Industry Limited Company;Jiulong Gastrodia elata development Limited Company;

摘要(Abstract):

真菌性病害是限制乌天麻产业健康发展的一个重要因素,乌天麻真菌性病害防治是当前天麻生产上极为关注的问题。该研究通过调查统计贵州大方以及云南小草坝主要乌天麻种植基地的乌天麻绝收率、烂窖率及乌天麻病害发生率,对我国当前的乌天麻病害情况做了详细的调研,结果发现乌天麻病害部位主要是从麻体顶芽、箭麻与母麻连接处开始侵染,造成乌天麻病害发生率达到6%~17%,产量下降率达10%~30%;从18个较典型的病害乌天麻样本中分离出23株优势真菌,通过对这23株优势真菌进行菌落形态、菌丝形态、孢子形态的观察以及遗传特征鉴定,最终鉴定将其确定为13个种,分属于5个门,7个属。其中真菌分离频率最高的是木霉属的哈茨木霉Trichoderma harzianum和土赤壳属的Ilyonectria sp.及I.destructans,分离频率分别达到22.22%,16.67%,16.67%。该研究首次从病害天麻中分离出土赤壳属的Ilyonectria sp.及I.destructans,可能是导致天麻土传病害的主要病原菌,而哈茨木霉T.harzianum作为天麻生防菌来防治病害具有一定潜能,可为乌天麻真菌性病害防控技术的研发提供理论依据。
Fungal disease is an important factor restricting the healthy development of Gastrodia elata industry. The control of fungal disease in G. elata is an important issue in production. This paper makes a detailed investigation on the current situation of G. elata disease in China through statistics on the failure rate, rotten pit rate and occurrence rate of G. elata disease in the main producing areas of China. It was found that G. elata disease was mainly infected from the top bud and junction, causing the occurrence rate of disease was 6%-17%, and the yield decreased by 10%-30%. The 23 dominant fungi were isolated from 18 typical G. elata disease samples. Through identification of colony morphology, mycelium morphology, spore morphology and genetic characteristics, they were finally identified as 13 species, belonging to 7 families and 7 genera. Trichoderma harzianum, Ilyonectria sp. and Ilyonectria destructans are the most frequently separated. Their isolation frequency were 22.22%,16.67%,16.67% respectively. Ilyonectria sp. and I. destructans were the first time isolated from G. elata disease samples. They may be the main pathogens causing soil-borne diseases of G. elata. T. harzianum has certain potential as Gastrodia biocontrol bacteria. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the research and development of control technology of Gastrodia fungi disease.

关键词(KeyWords): 乌天麻;染菌病害;病原真菌;分离鉴定
Gastrodia elata;rot disease;pathogenic fungi;separation and identification

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(81960694);; 国家重点研发计划中医药现代化专项(2017YFC1700703);; 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 贵州省高层次新型人才项目(黔科合平台人才[2018]5638);; 贵州省科技创新人才团队项目(黔科合平台人才[2019]5611);; 贵州科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2018]2764);; 贵州省一流学科建设项目(GNYL[2017]008)

作者(Author): 张进强;唐鑫;肖承鸿;徐娇;袁青松;王晓;刘大会;张光文;刘福明;江维克;周涛;
ZHANG Jin-qiang;TANG Xin;XIAO Cheng-hong;XU Jiao;YUAN Qing-song;WANG Xiao;LIU Da-hui;ZHANG Guang-wen;LIU Fu-ming;JIANG Wei-ke;ZHOU Tao;Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Shandong Analysis and Test Center;Hubei University of Chinese Medicine;Guizhou Wumeng Teng Fungus Industry Limited Company;Jiulong Gastrodia elata development Limited Company;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20191204.108

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