中国中药杂志

2014, v.39(07) 1143-1151

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中药材规范化生产(GAP)10年:成果、问题与建议
Good agricultural practice( GAP) of Chinese materia medica( CMM) for ten years: achievements,problems and proposals

郭兰萍;张燕;朱寿东;王桂华;王秀;张小波;陈美兰;何雅莉;韩邦兴;陈乃富;黄璐琦;
GUO Lan-ping;ZHANG Yan;ZHU Shou-dong;WANG Gui-hua;WANG Xiu;ZHANG Xiao-bo;CHEN Mei-lan;HE Ya-li;HAN Bang-xing;CHEN Nai-fu;HUANG Lu-qi;National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;State Key Laboratory of Dao-di Herbs;China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering of West Anhui University;

摘要(Abstract):

该文旨在总结中药材GAP实施过程中取得的成果,在分析其存在问题的基础上,就中药材GAP的进一步推行提出建议。作者认为中药材GAP推行10年取得了很大成果,包括①颁布了中药材GAP认证的一系列管理办法;②中药材规模化面积不断扩大;③农民及企业规范化种植中药材的意识增强;④形成了一批中药材GAP基地;⑤中药材栽培理论和方法不断完善;⑥培养了一大批中药材GAP生产及认证的专家和学者。GAP生产中存在的问题主要包括:①对GAP及其认证的认识和理解亟需深化;②GAP认证基地布局不够合理;③地缘经济及小农经济耕作是中药材规范化和规模化生产的瓶颈;④比较效益偏低限制了GAP的发展;⑤优良品种选育基础空白;⑥栽培技术不成熟导致生产过程风险较大;⑦土壤微生态恶化及连作障碍制约了中药材GAP基地的可持续发展。为进一步促进中药材GAP健康有序发展,作者提出以下建议:①改变生产模式,全面推动中药材GAP生产;②建立健全中药材标准体系,推行中药材优质优价;③充分考虑地缘经济文化,大力推行中药材定向培育;④强化基础研究和成果转化推广,为中药材生产提供技术保障;⑤深化对GAP的理解,大力推行生态种植和精细农业克服连作障碍。作者认为,虽然仍面临大量管理和技术问题,但中药材GAP早已深入人心,并展现出巨大的前景。未来时日,随着人们对GAP认识理解的不断加深,以及科技的巨大进步,GAP生产将会不断与精准农业、生态农业等现代农业理论、方法及技术融合,并展现出更大的潜力和更广阔的前景。
This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice( GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica( CMM),and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP,to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago,it has acquired great achievements,including: ①The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; ②The expanded planting area of CMM; ③ The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; ④The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; ⑤The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; ⑥The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: ①A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; ②The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; ③The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; ④Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; ⑤The base of breeding improved variety is blank; ⑥The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; ⑦The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing,the authors propose: ①To change the mode of production; ②To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; ③To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; ④ To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements,in order to provide technical support for the CMM production; ⑤To deepen the understanding of GAP,to vigorously promote ecological planting and precision agriculture,in order to overcome the continuous cropping obstacle. The authors think that despite the fact that we are still facing with a huge array of management and technological problems,the GAP in the CMM growing has already enjoyed widespread support and showed great potential. In the future, with people's deeper understanding of GAP and the great progress of the science and technology,the GAP will constantly be fused with the theory,methodology and technology in the modern agriculture like precision agriculture,eco-agriculture and etc.

关键词(KeyWords): 中药材;GAP;规范化;生态种植;精准农业
Chinese materia medica(CMM);good agricultural practice(GAP);standardization;ecology agriculture;precision agriculture

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(81130070,81072989);; 国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAI29B02,2012BAI28B002);; 国家中医药管理局行业科研专项(201107009)

作者(Author): 郭兰萍;张燕;朱寿东;王桂华;王秀;张小波;陈美兰;何雅莉;韩邦兴;陈乃富;黄璐琦;
GUO Lan-ping;ZHANG Yan;ZHU Shou-dong;WANG Gui-hua;WANG Xiu;ZHANG Xiao-bo;CHEN Mei-lan;HE Ya-li;HAN Bang-xing;CHEN Nai-fu;HUANG Lu-qi;National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;State Key Laboratory of Dao-di Herbs;China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering of West Anhui University;

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